MASH Journal Volume 7 Issue II

July 2022
Parasites: Major Attacks, Ways Of Transmission And Preventive Measures
Ashraful Kabir

Helminths infection is a class one neglected problem nowadays, particularly in Asia and very common in economically poverty-stricken families. To build up a healthy nation, circulate a real message with this review. A literature survey suggested that only individual and family hygiene through provocation are the only ways to avoid parasitic attacks in the human community.

Perception Of Telemedicine Visits During The Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study Among Medical Students
Lai Yong Liang, Delveena a/p Dhass, Lim Chang Yen, Harvind Kumar a/l Suparamaniyam, Ashwin Sekar, Sujata Khobragade , Mila Nu Nu Htay, Soe Moe, Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe

Telemedicine is described as healing at a distance together with the utilization of electronic information and telecommunication technology to improve patient’s outcome by enabling better access to care and medical information of an individual’s needs. During COVID-19 pandemic, telemedicine could be a vital tool in providing care to patients while maintaining social distancing. The aim of this research is to determine the perception of telemedicine visits during this COVID-19 pandemic among medical students in a private medical university in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2021 to June 2021 and purposive sampling was used to enrol students for this study. Data collection was done by distribution of a google link consisting of the questionnaires to the students. The questionnaire was divided into three parts which were the sociodemographic information, preference of telemedicine, and experience with telemedicine. The data was analysed by Epi Info software version 7.2. The analysis included frequency tables, percentages, odd ratios, and chi-square test. A total of 150 students had participated in this study. The majority (74.67%) prefer to visit their regular doctor in person compared to those opting for telemedicine visits (25.33%). During this COVID-19 pandemic, it is seen that the percentage of medical students who prefer to see their doctor in person has fallen to 48.67% while 51.33% prefer telemedicine visits. After social distancing ends, only 4.66% prefer telemedicine visits. Telemedicine visits are not popular among the medical students because the concept is still new in Malaysia, and it is underdeveloped. Further studies and publicity on telemedicine visits in Malaysia might encourage them to have more enthusiasm for telemedicine.

Hiding In Plain Sight - An Incidental Finding Of Crowned Dens Syndrome
Jeremy V., Aishah N, Victor N, Eyrique G1.

Crowned dens syndrome (CDS) is a rare condition in which there is an abnormal deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) or hydroxyapatite crystals in the ligaments surrounding the odontoid process forming a crown or “halo-like” configuration. It is often misdiagnosed. In this case, we had a patient that had been admitted in view of trauma, however on an incidental finding from the CT scan showed the diagnosis of “Crowned Dens Syndrome”. The aim of this report is to raise awareness to the existence of this condition thus preventing submitting patients to inaccurate treatment and unnecessary investigations.

Nutritional Knowledge, Eating Habits, and Health Attitudes of Clinical Year Medical Students in A Private University in Malaysia
Clarissa Seow Xin Ni, Nurul Nabila binti Ahmad Masmi, Mahaletchummi a/p S Kanan, Goh Kai Sheng, Kabiram M. Seenivasagam a/l Karunananthan, Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe, Soe Moe, Nivedita Nadarajah, Mila Nu Nu Htay

The nutritional knowledge, health attitude, and dietary habits of medical students in their clinical year are important as adequate knowledge of nutrition is a positive influence on the healthcare of the community. Nutritional knowledge has a direct impact on the choice of food, health attitude, and beliefs towards health. This study aimed to assess the nutritional knowledge, eating habits, health attitudes, and factors affecting food choices among clinical year medical students in a private university in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among clinical year medical students from May 2022 to July 2022.  The respondents were recruited by purposive sampling and data was collected by using an online questionnaire. Data was analyzed by using Epi info software (version, and descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted using mean, standard deviation, Chi-square test, and Fisher’s Exact test. A total of 139 students participated in this study. Among the respondents, 47.48%, 44.60%, and 62.59% had an adequate knowledge of nutrition, good eating habits, and good nutritional attitudes respectively. There is no significant association between age, gender, study year, body mass index (BMI), and a monthly allowance towards nutritional knowledge, eating habits, and health attitudes. However, data recorded shows that female respondents have better nutritional knowledge, eating habits, and health attitudes compared to males. Health promotion among medical students should be carried out as it will encourage healthier lifestyle practices, which will be implemented in their careers as doctors in the future.

Effect of Laughter Therapy on Physiological and Psychological Functions Among Medical Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Lim Tian Kui , Pooja Renyshah A/P Thangaganesh, Thaarini A/P Vijayandran, Vethasri A/P Maheswaran, Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe, Soe Moe, Minoo Pothen , Mila Nu Nu Htay

Laughter therapy is highly recommended to have positive impacts on physiological, psychological, and biological function, especially in producing serotonin and helping to inhibit the stress hormone. An open labelled, randomized control trial, the effect of laughter therapy on physiological and psychological functions among undergraduate medical students was conducted in a private medical university in Malaysia. While the control group carried on, as usual, the intervention group underwent laughter therapy, which included paper and pillow fights and comedy shows during three days of intervention. It was necessary to monitor both groups’ blood pressure, heart rate, and stress level in assessing the laughter therapy. Assessment of perceived stress was conducted through Google form questionnaire of Perceived Stress Scale while the digital blood pressure equipment was used to measure the blood pressure and heart rate throughout the session. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded, and perceived stress scale was administered before and after the intervention. However, there was no significant difference in perceived stress between the intervention and control groups after the intervention. These facts imply that neither the pre-intervention nor post-intervention results of this study was able to demonstrate appreciable modifications in the blood pressure, heart rate, or stress level.

Knowledge, Attitude and Perception on Traffic Noise Pollution among Undergraduate Medical Students in Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Jayshrie a/p Murugan, Avenashini a/p Anpalakan, Sri Dania Shreida, MohanKumar a/l Kanniaseelan, Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe , Soe Moe, Htay Lwin, Mila Nu Nu Htay

Noise is a persistent environmental hazard in our current world, and it arises from a diverse number of sources, and it is not taken as seriously as other sources of pollution. However, noise pollution can be regarded as the third most harmful factor in major cities. This study was conducted to assess the effects of noise pollution on undergraduate medical students in Malaysia as well as due to the limited amount of research on this topic. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2022 to August 2022 among undergraduate medical students in a private medical university in Malaysia. A purposeful sampling method was utilized to enlist students and a questionnaire was used to collect data. The analysis is explained using frequency tables, percentages, standard deviations, unpaired t-test, and one-way ANOVA test. The effect of noise pollution on human health respondents, the highest number correctly answered was 95.9% for irritation and the lowest number was 30.6% for increased heart rate respectively. The next question was whether reflection levels of high-rise buildings were a factor in raising the level of noise pollution, 83.7% answered correctly and the third question was whether trees reduce noise pollution, 80.6% answered correctly. 73.5% answered correctly that retaining walls were effective to reduce traffic noise pollution and 68.4% correctly answered vegetation density was effective in reducing noise. A total of 51.0% answered creating walls was more effective in reducing noise pollution than using dirt hills next to highways, 87.8% were familiar with the suitable plant species for reducing sound, and 71.4% familiar with the suitable materials of the highway walls to reduce noise. And for the final questions, 57.1%, 80.6%, and 76.5% answered correctly on the knowledge level of students about the effects of noise pollution on human health. The mean score obtained was 14.5, whereby 56% had good knowledge regarding the effects of noise pollution on human health.

Correlation Between Eating Habits and Exam Stress Among Medical Students in Malaysia: A Cross-sectional Study
J. B. Sathmi S. De Silva , Fathima Safna Tuan Fareed, Mah Yin Chang, Keishini a/p T. Alagarajah, Sujata Khobragade , Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe, Soe Moe, Mila Nu Nu Htay

Stress is thought to influence human eating behaviour. Usually, it has a negative impact on human health. Medical students could feel stress during their studies contributed by the nature of their study. As a result, their appetite can be affected by skipping meals or eating fast food. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of eating habits and its association with stress among medical students. This cross-sectional study was conducted among the undergraduate medical students in a private medical university college in Malaysia. Researchers used questionnaires consisting of questions on sociodemographic, stress and eating habits, which was distributed online. The data was statistically analysed using Epi Info version Correlation test, unpaired T-test, one-way ANOVA, and general linear model were used to analyze the data. A total of 109 students participated in the study. The mean age was 22.2     years and 70.6% were female students. Findings revealed that 40% of students showed to be having poor eating habits, that was positively associated with the exam stress (r= 0.69, p value= 0.004). A significant positive association was established between gender and exam stress faced by the medical students that have participated in the study (p value= 0.01). This study demonstrated that exam stress and eating habits are critical issues for a medical student’s life and their future. Therefore, undergraduate medical students need support and guidance on healthy eating habits and strategies to cope up with exam stress especially when they are preparing for important exams and also right after the exams.

Utilisation, satisfaction and opinion on telemedicine among undergraduate medical students: A cross-sectional study in Malaysia
Theophania Hor Zhi Zhen , Leong Weng Shen, Yugendran, Pawan Madusanka, Manasa Manivannan, Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe, Mila Nu Nu Htay, Soe Moe, M Swamenathan

Covid-19 crisis in Malaysia has strengthened the foundation of the country’s digital health care services. Currently, the idea on telemedicine is more prevalent among medical students which plays a vital role in their present and future life. This study was aimed at determining the utilization, satisfaction, opinion on telemedicine and their relationship among undergraduate medical students. This study was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted from July 2022 to August 2022, among the undergraduate medical students in a private medical university in Malaysia. We had recruited 158 participants by non-probability purposive sampling. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed online via Google forms to undergraduate students. The data was processed and analysed using Microsoft Excel and Epi Info version Statistical tests used was Chi square test, Fisher’s exact test, Unpaired t-test and Correlation. The frequency and percentage were analysed for qualitative data while mean, standard deviation and range for quantitative data. Level of significance was set at p<0.05 and odds ratio was calculated. Among the 158 participants, only 20.89% participants had self-utilized telemedicine, 24.68% participants utilized for family and friends and 17.09 % participants observed doctors utilizing telemedicine. Mean satisfaction score was 63.50 ± 12.11 and mean opinion score was 91.21± 15.87. Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.7 and it was statistically significant (p<0.001). There was significant, high, and positive linear correlation between satisfaction and opinion on telemedicine utilization. This study showed majority have heard and have some information about telemedicine, but few have utilized telemedicine. More participants responded positively in terms of future utilization of telemedicine There was significant association between utilization, satisfaction and opinion on telemedicine among the students. It is essential for medical students to integrate telemedicine in their future career in view of the rapid digitalisation of healthcare delivery system.

A Revision Exclusively on the Diseases of Female Reproductive Organs and Breasts
Ashraful Kabir

Based on human survival, females have innumerable impacts on this universe. They give birth for the continuity of generation through pregnancy. If mothers are housewives or service-holders, naturally, they spend most of their time, to nourish and care for children. Twenty-four references have helped to accumulate a clear conception of these female reproductive diseases. The review result suggested that out of 28 diseases, the incident of disease percentages was 28.57, 10.71, 25, 10.71, 25, 10.71, 17.86, and 3.57 in the uterus, cervix, ovary, fallopian tube, vagina, vulva, breast, and bone respectively. Females get affected with lactation-mediated osteoporosis and osteoporosis due to menopause. Amongst the menstrual problems, at the time before menopause or during the time of menopause (pre-, post-, and peri-menopausal symptoms), females received lots of life-threatening issues in their lives.

Endocarditis in Disseminated Melioidosis: A Case Report
TS Ng1, MA Wajidi

Melioidosis is a disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei and it is an endemic in Southeast Asia. We report a case of a 59 years-old gentleman who worked as plantation worker presented to hospital with symptoms of fever, cough, loss of weight and appetite for 1 week of duration. Examination reviewed unilateral left limb swelling. Investigations showed bicytopenia and high inflammatory marker. Chest x-ray noted left upper lobe cavitation and ultrasound showed left popliteal deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A diagnosis of community acquired pneumonia and left DVT was made. He was initially started on intravenous augmentin plus oral azithromycin and subcutaneous enoxaparin, however his clinical condition deteriorating with multiple spikes of temperature. Subsequently, CT thorax revealed a large left lung cavitation with splenic microabscesses. Echocardiogram showed vegetation over the non-coronary cusp of the aortic valve and repeated blood culture grew showed growth of Burkholderia pseudomallei. Diagnosis was revised to disseminated melioidosis with native valve infective endocarditis. Antibiotics were escalated to intravenous meropenem and oral bactrim. Unfortunately, patient succumbed on 4th week of hospitalization.